SAP Interview Questions and Answers

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1. explain your landscape?
Ours is three system landscape Development, Production and quality system
2. How can u connect to your server?
3. Which network r u using?
4. Where is your data bank?
5. What is daily monitoring?
In st22 look for the core dumps if any and report to the respective consultants and
try to know why it happened.
In sm21 try to check for errors.
In sp01 try to see if any spool jobs have failed.
In st02 look if any swaps are happening, swaps are not good for performance.
In st04 look for Database alert logs and Performance.
In st03 look for ratio hits.
In sm59 look for connectivety tesing if there are other systems also connected to
your SAP R/3 system
In db13 look if the jobs have run successfully.
In sm37 look for any cancelled scheduled job and take action appropriately.
In sm12 look for any pending locks from the previous days.
In sm13 look for any hanged updates, or updates pending for long or updates in
PRIV mode
6. how can u generate roles? explain?
7. how can u create the profiles? explain?
You can create profiles using transaction code pfcg
8. What is your role in production server?
9. how can u do the transports?
The transport routes are used to define in which target system you want to
consolidate and deliver change requests
Transport requests are released in the source system and are imported into the
destination system se09 and se10 are used to release transport requests
10. how can u maintain the users security?
11. Where did (which server) u logon every day?
12. explain abt ur client?
13. explain abt ur project?
14. have u faced any difficult problem with ur client?
15. how is ur work culture with ur team people?
16. have the access directly with the client ?
17. What are add on tools?
18. What is the oss notes and support packs? Explain?
OSS notes are a way of enhancing or modifying the functionality of a system as per
the requirements as well as problems. These modifications could be done to any SAP
Object such as ABAP programs, function modules, and tables, SAP Scripts etc.
Before applying any OSS note, you need to check whether that OSS note is
applicable to you system or not. Most of the changes mentioned in OSS note are
incorporated in Support packs. Depending on the support pack level of your system,
you will have to apply or ignore an OSS note.
19. have u did the oss notes and support packs?
20. what is client copy?
21. what is snote?
Snote is transaction code to implement oss notes
22. what is spdd and spau?
Transaction SPDD is use to perform modification adjustment to certain ABAP Dictionary
objects such as domains, data elements, table structures, transparent tables, pooled tables,
cluster tables, and table technical settings. Not performing modification adjustment for these
objects would cause data loss.
􀂄 After activating the new Repository, Transaction SPAU is use to perform modification
adjustment for objects for which omitting modification adjustment would NOT lead to data
loss. These objects include:
􀀑 Some ABAP Dictionary objects (lock objects, match codes, and views)
􀀑 All other Repository objects (such as module pools, ABAP programs, function
modules, menus, and screens)
􀀑 After running Transactions SPDD and SPAU
1. What is a client copy? Why it needs? Explain?
Are designed to replace data of one client with data from other client
Local client copy between clients in the same R/3 System
Remote client copy between clients in different R/3 Systems
Client transport between clients of different R/3 System
2. What is CCMS? Explain?
It provides
Profile maintenance
Unattended 24-hour system management using operation
modes, instance definitions, and scheduling
Starting and stopping instances
Processing and controlling background jobs, scheduling
database backups
Automatic reporting of system alerts
Dynamic logon load balancing
System and network monitoring and analysis
The Computing Center Management System (CCMS) is an integral part of the R/3
Basis. CCMS
provides tools for managing:
R/3 System and performance
Database and archiving
3. What is House Keeping? Explain?
4.What is an authorization?
Authorization provides permission to access certain transactions reports or data. For
each user activity or transaction an authorization check is performed to see if the
required authorizations have been provided to the user. Authorization limit access to
transactions and objects in r/3 system.
5. What is a profile?
In a Windows environment, a user profile is a record of user-specific data that define
the user's working environment. The record can include display settings, application
settings, and network connections. What the user sees on his or her computer
screen, as well as what files, applications and directories they have access to, is
determined by how the network administrator has set up the user's profile.
6. What is a profile Generator?
Profile generator allows authorization administrators to automatically generate and
assign authorization profiles. Released with 3.1 G this tool accelerates R/3
implementation by simplifying the task of setting up the authorization environment.
The administrator needs only to configure customer specific settings. The profile
generator is a new approach to defining the authorization environment. The
administrator no longer uses authorization objects to define authorizations for
various user groups.
7. What is a server Group?
Logon groups enable an R/3 System to distribute the load on instances in the group
more evenly and therefore more efficiently. A logon group consists of a group of
instances. To create logon groups, call transaction SMLG. After a logon group has
been defined, users can log on to the system by choosing the group. The user is
automatically routed to the instance with the best response time. This process is
called load balancing.
After you have configured logon groups, you must install and configure SAP Logon on
your frontend PCs (this program replaces the SAP GUI icon on the PC). SAP Logon
displays a list of all the configured logon groups.
You can also configure logon groups for different groups of users. If load balancing is
employed, only the programs and tables used by the group are buffered on the
application server. Therefore, the application server requires less memory. For
example, if users working with the SD module form a logon group, the server may
only need to buffer SD data and programs.
8. If a user get the Error like"Timed_out"? What is ur next step?
9. What is a security? Why it needs? Explain?
This unit focuses on the R/3 user within the R/3 System. However, it is important for
the R/3 System administrator to control access to both the operating system (OS)
where the R/3 Systems reside and the database (DB). External user IDs exist both at
the OS and DB levels that can be used to disrupt normal operation of the R/3
Access to the R/3 System is controlled at the client level. Each R/3 user must
have a user master record in the client in which that user will work. In R/3,
authorizations are used to restrict access to programs and data.
10. What is SM50 ? Explain?
Use transaction SM50 to determine the number of dialog work processes (count
the processes displayed). SM50 displays the work processes for one dispatcher.
In R/3, you can use transaction SM50 to see the developer trace for a particular
work process:
choose Process Trace Display file (or click on Display file).
11. How can u recognise the application server?( if the R/3 contains
additional instances)
The message server provides the application servers with a central message service
for internal communication (for example, trigger update, request and remove locks,
trigger background requests).
12. Is the spool service necessary to configure an application server?
13. how many printers can we configure with one spool server?
14. how can we restrict an user to access to a particular table?
15. if u develop a program in one client? is it necessary to send all
the clients in the R/3 or not?
Ans: programs are client independent there is no need to send to all
16. how many message servers r available for an R/3?
One message server is available
17. Explain the hierarchy of authorizations?
18. With out org level values can we generate the roles or not?
19. how can u find ,whether the tables r client dependent or not?
Yes we can find whether table is client dependent or not by checking mandt field in
the table
20. how can u do the authorizations trace? Explain?
The R/3 System enables you to find out which authorization objects are checked
when you run a particular transaction, report, or program.
To record authorization checks, use the system trace. To start the system trace,
choose Tools
Use transaction ST01.
21. how can u get the authorization failures from the users?
To analyze an authorization failure, call transaction SU53 and determine which
authorizations are required for your task
22. how can u solve the abap dumps?
23. what is the difference between se09 and se10? Explain their tasks?
The Customizing Organizer (CO) (Transaction code SE10) records Customizing
changes in change requests (of type CUST) which can be released to the transport
system for export to other systems in the R/3 System landscape.
The Workbench Organizer (WBO) (Transaction code SE09) records ABAP
Development Workbench changes in change requests (of type SYST), which can then
be released to the Transport system for export to other systems in the R/3 System
Customizing changes are saved to a Customizing change request. Development
changes are saved to Workbench change requests.
Customizing changes consist of table entries.
Workbench change requests concern changes to R/3 Repository objects, such as
ABAP programs, screens, data dictionary objects and global documentation.
Compared to Customizing, change management for development is more
complex, requiring:
Registration of developers within SAP Software Change Registration (SSCR)
Development classes for R/3 Repository objects
Locking of R/3 Repository objects during development
Versioning of R/3 Repository objects
24 how can u modify or add the authorizations (after getting the user
dump or user trace)?
ans: by using su24( it can possible thru expert mode only) or manual
at authorizations screen( if we r using su24 and modify the required
authorization object, then it shows the authorizations status
, if u do the modification by mannually by choosing the"manually"
button at the authorizations screen and add or modify the requried
authorization object to the role or profile , then it shows the
status as "manual".), after that u need to regenarate the profile and
role too.
25.what is an instance?
An instance is an administrative unit that combines R/3 System components
providing one or more services. The services provided by an instance are started or
stopped together. You use a common instance profile to set parameters for all the
components of an instance.
26.What is an authorization object?
An object class is a logical grouping of authorization objects that share a similar
Purpose or business area. For example, object class Basis: Administration contains
authorization objects that control access to Basis transactions.
The authorization object is the template from which the authorization is created. It is
used in the ABAP code for authorization checks. Each object has up to 10 fields that
are checked using AND logic before access is granted to the desired transaction.
27. what is an authorization trace?
28. Explain abt work processes?
The message server (MS or M) communicates between the distributed dispatchers
within the R/3 System and is therefore the prerequisite for scalability using several
parallel-processing application servers.
The gateway server (GW or G) allows communication between R/3, R/2 and external
application systems.
Dialog: Every dispatcher requires at least two dialog work processes
Spool: At least one for each R/3 System (more than one allowed for each dispatcher)
Update: At least one for each R/3 System (more than one allowed for each
Background processing: At least two for each R/3 System (more than one allowed
for each
Enqueue: Only one enqueue work process is needed for each system
29. how many work processors r there in one R/3 server?
There are seven work processes (dialog, background, spool, update, enque,
gateway, message)
30. What kind of activities are possible with SAPDBA tool?
Database backup, restore and recovery
Space management
Database system check
Database reorganization
Cost-based optimization of access
31. While extending the table space (addind a data file to the table
space) , what kind of parameters we r using?
Tablespace name
32. while adding the data file , r u writing any sql query?
33. what is version managment?
Version management is active for all objects of the ABAP Workbench.
Version management serves different purposes and user groups:
• The developer can keep track of his or her work ("What have I changed?")
• The developer can restore a previous version by reactivating it.
• The system administrator can monitor work ("Which objects were changed and how in a
specific time interval?")
• It provides a basis for any auditor who requires a complete history of changes.
• It enables customers to use the system to adjust data after they have upgraded to a new
34. if we have argue amount of free space with hard disk(for a
particular table space memory is > 90%), is it necessary to add the
data file to that table space or not?
Yes we have to increase tablespace
35. what is database reorganization?
Resizing data file
36. what is CTS ? Explain?
The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize
development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then
transport the changes between the SAP Systems in your system landscape.
The Change and Transport Organizer (CTO) provides functions for organizing
software development projects. It is designed to support projects of all sizes,
whether they are carried out centrally or in a distributed environment.
The Transport Management System (TMS) organizes, monitors, and performs
transports for all R/3 Systems within a system landscape. In addition, TMS is used to
configure and manage the setting up of R/3 Systems and transport routes within a
system landscape.
37. Explain dependent and independent transports?
38. What is SAP*? Explain?
SAP* for initial access to the R/3 System
SAP* is a special user. In addition to the user SAP* that is created in every client during a
client copy, the user SAP* is hard coded into the kernel. The hard coded user SAP* is
exempt from all authorization checks. Do not delete the user master record from any client in
the R/3 system. If the user master record for SAP* is deleted from a client, the hard coded
user can be accessed.
39. Have u solved any ABAP Dump analysis? how?
By seeing the ABAP dump error we come to whether the error belongs to insufficient
memory, table space error or ABAP program error or Developer error
If it belongs to insufficient memory dump error it displays at which stage the
transaction terminated and how much more memory is required. So we need to
increase the memory through instance profile.
If the error belongs to Table Space error it displays table name. So we need to
increase the Tablespace of that table.
If the error belongs to ABAP program error we have to analyze the program through
If the error belongs to Developer, then we need to cancel the ABAP program
40. have u installed SAP R/3?
41. Have u done client copy? Explain?
42. Explain the backup strategies in R/3?
A full backup is always performed with backup_mode = full. In a full backup, there
are two ways of writing data to tape:
Backing up data with RMAN
Backing up data with OS tools
43. What is data archiving?
Data Archiving removes from the database application data that is no longer
required, and places it in archive files that can be accessed and analyzed at a later
44. What is spo1 and spad?
Sp01: is for displaying spool or output requests.
Spad: is used for maintenance of spool database
45. what is a background job? How can u define? how can u maintain the
Which runs without any user intervention
Background processing lets you move long-running or resource-intensive program
runs to times when the system load is low. It also lets you delegate to the system
the task of running reports or programs. Your dialog sessions are not tied up, and
reports that run in the background are not subject to the dialog-step run-time limit
that applies to interactive sessions
SM36 to define a background Job
SM37 to monitor background jobs
46. what is a system group?
47. Explain landscape?
The term system landscape refers to the group of R/3 Systems normally comprising the
development system, the quality assurance system, and the production system. A system
landscape consists of all the R/3 Systems that share change requests for the purpose of
maintaining consistent Customizing and development environments.
48. Under what circumstance we need client copy?
To create new client
50. What is st03 Explain in detail?
St03 gives detail Workload analysis of server
Task Type Profile - Workload statistics according to work process type
Time Profile - Workload statistics according to hour
Transaction Profile - Workload statistics according to transaction
Database performance monitor displays overview of the load and configuration of
Work process overview
Name of instance
Display user overview
Important statistics displayed in the Operating System Monitor include:
􀀑 CPU load average and % CPU utilization
􀀑 Operating system swapping and % memory utilization
􀀑 % disk utilization
􀀑 Operating system configuration parameters
􀂄 CPU bottlenecks are indicated during several snapshots by:
􀀑 Idle CPU < 10 %
􀀑 Load Average: N processes waiting in front of the CPU
􀂄 Note: you must refresh your screen several times, as each display is a momentary
􀂄 Memory bottlenecks are indicated during several snapshots by:
􀀑 An increase in page outs for UNIX or page ins for NT.
􀀑 This topic is covered in more depth in unit Hardware Capacity Verification.
SSAA: All periodic and occasional tasks of system administrator can be performed
It provides single point of control for entire system landscape
SM21: System log
The system log shows various messages, including error messages. Some of these provide
information about, for example, operation mode switches or system start up. Other log
messages how errors that occurred in the system (such as update errors, deletion of lock
entries, or aborted
SM12 Current database locks
SM13 Terminated updates
51. What are the main tasks in daily system monitoring?
52. What r the main duties of r/3 Administrator?
53. What is a support pack? Why?
54. what is oss notes?
OSS notes are a way of enhancing or modifying the functionality of a system as per
the requirements as well as problems. These modifications could be done to any SAP
object such as ABAP programs, function modules, tables, SAPScripts etc.
55. How many messege servers r there in Application Server? Where it lies?
There is only one message server in application server. We can find on which
Application server the message server resides using profile parameter rdisp/mshost
56. Explain DBREFRESH?
** in sap icg , we need to explain with the files and where they lies
and what they contain. **
1. What is the architechture of Sap R/3?
2. Explain the work processes?
3. Explain the DB Architechture?
􀂄 An Oracle database consists of a set of files and the Oracle instance.
􀂄 The files are:
• init.ora file
• control files
• data files
• online redo log files
• offline redo log files
􀂄 The Oracle instance consists of the allocated shared memory resources and the following
database background processes:
• DBWR = Database writer
• LGWR = Log writer
• CKPT = Checkpointer
• RECO = Recovery process
• PMON = Process monitor
There are two basic writing background processes in the Oracle database system:
• Database writer writes the data blocks that have been changed from the system global
area back to the data files asynchronously
• Log writer writes the logs of the changes that have been made to the data blocks to the
redo log files synchronously
􀂄 The archive process copies the redo log files that are currently not in use.
􀂄 The checkpointer assists the internal writing process at a checkpoint.
• SMON = System monitor
• ARCH = Archive process
4. What r the installation tools while doing the installation?
5. What r the transport triggers?
6. How many type of client copies?
7. What is client import and Export? Explain in detail?
8. How can u improve the system Performance?
9. Explain Fine tuning?
10. If the production server shut down,What is ur next step?
a) where can u get the problem?
b) where can u find the trace files?
The traces can be useful in diagnosing problems that are internal to either the host system or
R/3. Forexample, the disp+work process reports an inability to create work processes in the
developer trace.
Developer traces are written in files in the work directory of the R/3 application server that
generated the trace. To watch them in transaction ST11, choose Tools → Administration
→ Monitor → Traces→ Developer Traces.
To watch them in transaction AL11, choose Tools → CCMS → Control
Monitoring → Performance Menu → Exceptions/Users → Exceptions → SAP directories
11. What r the backup strategies in your org? Explain?
12. How can u configure printer admin? Explain?
13. what is the system trace?
1. Explain work processes?
2. What is oss?
The OSS system is used for different purposes. The OSS system can used for the
Following :
􀀹 To find OSS notes
􀀹 Register objects that need to be changed in the R/3 system
􀀹 Post messages to SAP with customer related problem which cannot
be solved by the customer or whose solution cannot be found in the
OSS system
􀀹 Register systems as well users (developers)
􀀹 Getting the license keys and license information
􀀹 Maintaining system information
3. What is support packs?
Online Correction Support (OCS) comprises tools and standard advance corrections called
Support Packages. A Support Package eliminates an error in an R/3 System. It is made
available before the next R/3 Release that contains the correction. A Support package
replaces the objects affected by the error, rendering their old versions obsolete. OCS makes
Support Packages available to all customers and enables them to apply them before the errors
can affect a system. Thus OCS provides preventive support. Unlike manual corrections, OCS
patches are not recognized as modifications during upgrade and are overwritten. This is no
problem, as each new R/3 Release contains all previous OCS corrections which were made
before the new R/3 Release was built.
To apply Support Packages, use the SAP Patch Manager (Transaction SPAM) in R/3 client
000,which is the interface between the customer's system and the OCS
Tasks such as Customizing, applying patches, and performing modification adjustments
are performed in the development system and transported to the quality assurance and
production systems. The modification adjustments are performed with Transactions SPDD
and SPAU.
The sequence of tasks in upgrading a three-system landscape is as follows:
􀀑 Upgrade DEV and perform modification adjustments in DEV
􀀑 Upgrade QAS or better, upgrade a copy of PRD; import modification adjustments into
QAS and test and validate system functionality
􀀑 Upgrade PRD; import modification adjustments into PRD
4. What is data archiving?
5. Explain printer admin and also how many type of printers?
6. What is the backup strategy? Explain?
7. Explain the landscape?
The term system landscape refers to the group of R/3 Systems normally comprising the
development system, the quality assurance system, and the production system. A system
landscape consists of all the R/3 Systems that share change requests for the purpose of
maintaining consistent Customizing and development environments.
A system landscape is usually synonymous with a transport domain. Having all R/3 Systems
of the same system landscape in the same transport domain ensures consistent configuration
and easy delivery of all change requests.
8. what r the authorizations statuses at the screen, while u r
generating profiles?
Ans. standard, maintained, changed, manually, old, new.
9. while generating the roles, if the user tab having different type of
color symbols? What r they, explain?
ans: green, yellow and red.
Green: all authorizations have been maintained
Yellow: some authorizations must still be maintained
Red: organizational levels must be maintained
An activity group may contain one-to many (1-n) profiles depending upon the transactions
selected from the company menu. If more than 150 authorizations are required for the
transactions selected, multiple profiles are generated.
10. Explain the client copy?
11. what is the dbo2? Explain?
12. what is max extent and next?
The NEXT size for a category is either twice or four times the size of the NEXT size
for the previous category. This helps to prevent external fragmentation.
The MAXEXTENT for R/3 tables and indexes is usually set to 300. If the number of
extents for a database object approaches 300, you must increase this parameter. As
of Oracle release 7.3, you can set this parameter to UNLIMITED.
13. what is table space? Give an example?
A table space is a logical storage unit
A Tablespace in an Oracle database consists of one or more physical data files. A
data file can be associated with only one tablespace. You can increase a tablespace
in two ways:
infosys and hp
1. What is STMS? How can u configure?
The Transport Management System (Transaction STMS) enables you to:
􀀑 Define an R/3 System's role within a system landscape or transport domain
􀀑 Configure the transport routes using either a graphical editor or hierarchical editor
􀀑 Configure the transport tool transport control program tp.
􀀑 Display the import queues of all R/3 Systems in the transport domain
􀀑 Decide whether the quality assurance testing was successful in the QA System
􀀑 Start the import of change requests in an import queue
􀀑 Perform transports between R/3 Systems without a common transport directory
􀀑 Handle transport proposals of developers
2. What is a client copy? How many types? Explain?
Are designed to replace the data of one client with data
from another client
􀂄 Are not designed to combine the
data of different clients
􀁺 Client data is categorized as either:
􀂄 Customizing data
􀂄 User master data
􀂄 Application data as defined by the
data table’s delivery class
􀁺 Application data can only be copied with the
corresponding Customizing data
􀂄 SAP provides three tools for copying data between clients:
􀀑 Local client copy between clients in the same R/3 System
􀀑 Remote client copy between clients in different R/3 Systems
􀀑 Client transport between clients of different R/3 Systems
3. What type of roles can we choose , while creating a new client?
SAP_ALL All client-specific data
SAP_CUST Copy Customizing data
SAP_CUSV Customizing and report variants
SAP_UAPP User master records, reports
SAP_UCSV Customizing, variants, and users
SAP_UCUS User master and Customizing
SAP_USER User master record
4. Explain the client create, delete and copy?
5. what is client import and export? how it is differs from client
A client transport differs from a remote client copy in that it does not use RFC. Like a remote
client copy, however, a client transport is used to copy data between different R/3 Systems.
􀂄 A client transport consists of two steps. First, a client export extracts client data from the
source client to files at the operating system level. Second, the data is imported from the
operating system files into the target client.
To perform a client export, proceed as follows: Log on to the source client. From the R/3
screen, choose Tools → Administration → Administration → Client Admin. → Client
→ Client Export. Select the data to be copied using a profile.
􀂄 Indicate the target system to which the client will be copied. (The target system must be
defined in TMS as part of the transport domain.)
􀂄 Begin the client export. As copying is a lengthy process, use scheduled background
6. Is it necessary to import the change requests to each client or not?
7. Transport requests r client independent or dependent?
Client independent
8. How many types of transport requests? Explain?
There are three types of transports
K type : Transport k type implements transport of development objects from
integration system to consolidation system. When u create a transport request using
the work bench organizer, it always chooses this transport type by default meaning
that all transportable change requests stored in the workbench organizer are
allocated this transport types, the objects are transported to the consolidation
system without changing the objects system owner which means transported objects
become repair objects and no corrections are allowed to imported objects
‘C’ type: With this transport type objects change system owner after they are
transported which means source system of the object looses its ownership after the
object is transported. So the target system in which objects are transported becomes
the original system. In other words objects are transported as original objects so
they can be corrected / modified in the target system too.
‘T’ type: this transport type is useful when you want copy objects between two
systems in a group i.e when the system other then the consolidation system receives
a copy of objects. Objects included in a transport of type T do not change their
system owner, so original system remains same.
9. explain the sap R/3 architecture?
The client /server architecture of r.3 consists of three types of services
Database service for storing and retrieving business data
Application server for running business processes
Presentation service for the graphical user interface
10. Is sap R/3 supports multiple logons?
11. Can we connect one application server to any no of database servers?
12. Can we connect one database server to any no of application servers?
13. Explain work processes?
14. how many min no of background processes r required for any
application server?
Two background processes are required for application server
15. What is transport layer?
Means by which the integration and consolidation system for R/3 repository objects
are determined. A transport layer is assigned to each development class and thus to
all r/3 repository objects in that development class. It determines the R/3 system in
which development or changes to r/3 repository objects are performed, and whether
the objects will be transported to other systems when development work has been
16. What is transport route?
Transport routes are used to indicate role of each system and flow of change
A transport routes can be either a consolidation route or a delivery route. For a standard
three-system landscape, the transport routes are as follows:
􀀑 A consolidation route connects the development system and the quality assurance
system. This transport layer is named Z, where is the system ID of the
development system.
􀀑 A delivery route is created between the quality assurance system and the production
􀀑 In the development system, if changes are made to objects whose development class
refers to the (standard) transport layer corresponding to a consolidation route, these changes
are recorded in requests and transported to the quality assurance system and then to the
production system. If you change SAP objects, these changes are recorded in repairs, which
can be transported in the same way but using the consolidation route "SAP".
􀂄 To create a consolidation route; enter a transport layer name in the field Transport layer.
A transport layer name must be within the customer's name range.
􀂄 You can only create delivery routes for consolidation routes that already exist.
16. What is transport domain controller?
You can manage the entire TMS configuration- the configuration of all r/3 systems,
their roles and their interrelationships. With the transport domain, each r/3 system
can communicate with all other r/3 systems through RFC connections that are
generated when TMS is configured.
Transport Group is a collection of r/3 systems that share same transport directory
17. What is a correction object?
18. What is a repair object?
If u change an object in a system that is not the original system, you are changing
the a copy of the object and not the original itself is called repair
19. How can you restrict a user to access only a single table for
'Display’ and another user for 'display and change'?
20. What is architecture and landscape?
21. What kind of transport errors? explain?
22. can we retransport the request , once it ahs already import by the
destination client?
23. how can you configure the printer? Explain the spool admin?
24. what is autorization, authorization object, authorization profile,
25.what is min and max size of a data file, while adding to table
26. what is a composite profile?
Composite profiles are set of authorization profiles, both simple and composite. A
composite profiles can contain unlimited number of profiles. Composite profiles are
suitable for users who have different responsibilities or job tasks in the system.
These profiles are sometimes known as reference profiles for assigning larger group
of access privileges and having the possibility of better match users with several
27. what can do with sm51? Explain?
28. how can you find missing authorizations? how can you solve?
29. what is SPDD and SPAU?
30. what is SNOTE?
31. how many ways can we schedule the back ups?
32. what is an instance?
33. what is the use of R3Trance?
34. is there any other way to create roles not with PFCG?
35. Which system is the domain controller in a landscape?
36. can you transport from QAS to DEV? or PRD to QAS?
37. list out some back ground jobs
Upender reddy mallesh
49. What is st02? Explain in detail?
St02 shows the percentage usage of buffers and memory
Buffer sizes
Buffer qualities (hit ratios)
􀂄 Bottlenecks may be indicated if buffer swaps occur.
􀂄 Choose Detail analysis menu to display other data, such as:
􀀑 Memory usage
􀀑 Semaphores usage
􀀑 Table calls
SCUM to access central user administration
SUIM This transaction provides basis for conducting detailed analysis of user master
records, profiles, authorizations, and activity groups.
ST01 (trace) enables you to find out which authorization objects are checked when you
run a Particular transaction, report, or program.
SU53 To analyze an authorization failure
What will you do when there is Performance Issues?
Check for long running jobs
Check for dead locks
SM12 Locks
Health of database db02, db01, st04, sm50
DB01: Database lock monitor
To improve performance and to minimize system downtime, you must
monitor the Oracle database daily.
ST04: Database performance monitor describes load and configuration of the
DB02: Tables and Indexes Monitor displays overview of storage behavior of the
database and status of database objects
DB24: The DBA operations Monitor provides you with a central point from which you
can check the status and logs of all database operations including backup
monitoring, update of optimizer statistics, and dba checks
RZ20: database alert monitor is a tool to monitor all preset alerts for different areas
of database.
ST05: Trace requests
If you activate the SQL trace (transaction ST05), a record of the SQL statements, the
response time of the database, and the number of records is written to the SQL trace file.
ST06: OS Monitor and Top CPU processes
ST10: Table call statistics
ST03: workload analysis of database and Application server
DB05: Analysis of Table with respect to indexed fields
An Oracle database system has three processes that write information from the
Shared Global
Area (SGA) to the appropriate files:
During a checkpoint, the database writer (DBWR) asynchronously writes the
blocks from the SGA to the database data files
To speed up the writing of checkpoints, the checkpoint process (CKPT) is started
The log writer (LGWR) synchronously writes the change log from the SGA redo
log bufferto the currently active online redo log file
In a production database system, the database must always run in ARCHIVELOG
mode and have the archiver process (ARCH) started (init.ora:
log_archive_start = TRUE). ARCH archives a completed online redo log file into an
offline redo log file in the archive directory.
ARCH determines the archive directory from the init.ora parameter
log_archive_dest (default: ?/saparch/) and determines the file name from the
parameter log_archive_format.
Once the offline redo log file has been successfully created, the corresponding
online redo log file is released to be overwritten with new log information.
If no freespace is available in the archive directory, the archiver does not archive
the file.
After a corresponding number of redo log switches, the database becomes "stuck".
Database changes cannot be committed as long as this archiver stuck situation
A database is divided into logical storage units called tablespaces. Tablespaces are
divided into logical units of storage called segments (tables/indexes). Segments are
further dividedinto extents, which consist of contiguous data blocks. A data block
(normally 8K) is the smallest unit of I/O used by a database.
A tablespace in an Oracle database consists of one or more physical data files. A
data file can be associated with only one tablespace. You can increase a tablespace
in two ways:
Add a data file to a tablespace. When you add another data file to an existing
tablespace, you increase the amount of disk space allocated for the corresponding
Increase the size of a data file.
Storage parameters such as INITIAL EXTENT, NEXT EXTENT and MAX EXTENT
allow you to manage space allocated to a table.
For performance reasons, operating system block size should be the same as
Oracle data
block size.
Incremental backup (also known as level 1 backup) is always based on the last level
0 backup (full backup). With SAP tools, only cumulative level 1 backup is supported
as incremental backup. RMAN retrieves information about the last level 0 backup
from the control files. An incremental backup is always a backup of the whole
database, not of individual data files.
In an incremental backup, all blocks of all data files are always read. However,
only those blocks that have changed since the last level 0 backup are backed up.
Therefore, if long backup runtime was caused by low throughput on the tape
stations, incremental backup can reduce the backup time.
A physical read must go to the disk to access the database data. When a physical
read occurs, a copy of the data block is written to the data buffer and then read and
analyzed by the shadow process.
A logical read does not need to go to the disk to access the database data,
instead, it reads the data block from the data buffer.
Accessing the data buffer is 1000 times faster than accessing the disk. To
minimize disk
access, the data buffer must be tuned.
When a database update occurs, the data blocks are updated in the data buffer
immediately, and written to disk at later time.

The hit ratio (Quality) of a database is defined as the percentage of data blocks
(Reads) compared with the total number of data blocks read from disk (Physical
reads). The
Reads are the sum of the logical and physical reads.
The hit ratio is displayed in the Database Performance Monitor (transaction
ST04), and
should be at least 94%.
Since the hit ratio is poor in the first few hours after startup, you should only
evaluate the hit
ratio after your system has been up for some time. As a general rule, wait until the
number of
Reads exceeds 20,000,000.
Before you increase the size of the database buffer, check for poorly qualified
SQL statements. Problems in the application can cause poor hit ratios in even the
largest of database buffers, for example, in the case of inefficient SQL coding, many
blocks may be read into memory unnecessarily.
The TMS configuration includes the following steps:
􀀑 Configuring the transport domain
-You must define which R/3 Systems in the system landscape should be combined in a
transport domain and which R/3 System is to be the transport domain controller.
􀀑 Configuring the transport control program tp
-The transport control program requires a transport profile that contains information about
establishing the database connection for all R/3 Systems in the transport domain. TMS
generates and manages this transport profile as a part of the transport domain configuration.
You do not need to adjust the transport profile using operating system functions.
􀀑 Configuring the transport routes
-The transport routes are used to define in which target system you want to consolidate and
deliver change requests.
Development class
A grouping of r/3 Repository objects belonging to common area. Unlike the objects in
change request, the grouping is logical rather then temporal. The development class
is assigned a transport layer to ensure that all objects have the same consolidation
The following things needed to be backed up
SAPDBA will backup all the business data, but your backup strategy must include backing
up all objects. Exactly which objects these are depends on the organizational structure of
your company. In the R/3 environment, the backup objects include the operating system and
the files associated with R/3.
􀂄 The objects that need to be backed up include:
􀀑 R/3 data, such as:
R/3 archiving objects
R/3 interfaces
SAP executables
􀀑 Computing center data, such as:
The operating system
Third party programs connected to R/3
􀀑 Database objects
􀂄 A correctly implemented database backup strategy is the only effective protection against
data loss in the database.
Backup strategy
A pool of tapes for database and offline redo log file backups is required. Ensure that enough
tapes are provided in each tape pool to span the entire backup cycle. We recommend having
30% more tapes than required to cover database growth and additional backups, for example
after a database extension. Backup tapes can be reused at the end of a backup cycle (after 28
􀂄 Perform a full online backup each workday. Perform a full offline backup at least once in
the cycle.
􀂄 You must back up the offline redo log files each workday, as well as after every online
and offline backup. Ensure that you back up the offline redo log files twice, on separate
tapes, before they are deleted.
􀂄 To verify a backup, check the database for logical errors and the database backups for
physical errors. You must perform backup verification at least once in the backup cycle.
However, we recommend that you perform it once a week.
􀂄 Remove the last verified full offline backup of each cycle from the tape pool, and keep
this backup in long-term storage. Replace the tapes, and initialize new ones.
􀂄 Changes to the file structure of the database affect the subsequent database restore. These
changes occur when a data file is added, when a data file is moved to a different location, or
when a tablespace and its data files are reorganized. Perform additional backups after each
database structure modification or a system upgrade. Place these additional backups in
longterm storage.
In addition to the database administration tool SAPDBA, SAP provides you with the
following tools for performing data backups:
􀀑 The program BRBACKUP backs up the data files, the control file, and the database
redo log files where necessary.
􀀑 The program BRARCHIVE backs up the offline redo log files of the database.
􀂄 Both BRBACKUP and BRARCHIVE record the actions performed in log files. These log
files can be used in the case of a database restore, and can be analyzed by the program
BRRESTORE. This program can restore all files belonging to the database system from the
􀂄 The database backup tools support standard backups, both to disk and to tape.

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